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El IAP (InterAcademy Panel) elaboró cinco declaraciones, invitando a sus entidades miembros a suscribirlas, entre ellas, nuestra Academia Nacional de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales. Esta Academia aprobó los cinco documentos, los que fueron dados a conocer públicamente por el IAP en oportunidad de su Asamblea General (ciudad de México, 1º al 5 de diciembre de 2003), en la que el Académico Titular Dr. Jorge V. Crisci participó como representante.

Dichas declaraciones, son:

  • Health of Mother and Child in Developing Countries
  • Scientific Capacity Building
  • Science Education of Children
  • Science and the Media
  • Access to Scientific Information

Health of Mother and Child in Developing Countries

An IAP Statement on Health of Mother and Child in developing countries

Mexico City, 4 December 2003

Fifteen years after the first international initiative for safer maternity, nearly 600,000 women - more than one every minute - die each year from complications associated with pregnancy and child birth, and 15 million women remain handicapped for the rest of their lives.

At the same time and for the same reasons, 3 million children die either during birth or their first week of life. More than 98% of these deaths occur in developing countries (DC's), where the rate of maternal mortality is at least 80 times higher than in industrialized countries (IC's).

This dramatic situation is most acute in sub-Saharian Africa where the maternal mortality rate is 880 per 100,000 births compared to around 10 in IC's.

In 1996, following the recommendations of IAP, actions against maternal morbidity and mortality in DC's have been launched. Several international meetings were organized (in Canada, France and Italy) and an internet website has been created (www.mother-child.org), linking hospitals, scientists and laboratories. These initiatives now need to be widely extended within the IAP and under the auspices of the newly created IAMP (the InterAcademy Medical Panel, which includes academies of medicine from all over the world), in close connection with international organizations, in particular the World Health Organization.

Therefore, the InterAcademy Panel on International Issues (IAP) recommends to all national leaders that:

1 - The reduction of maternal and childbirth related mortality and morbidity, and the healthy growth of the surviving child, be among the highest priorities in national and international public health programmes.
2 - Adequate financial resources be allocated for the creation, follow-up and evaluation of targeted programmes for the development of essential obstetrics adapted to the conditions of developing countries; and that appropriate education and training aimed at the diffusion of good clinical practice and quality control be widely developed among health professionals.
3 - Adequate evaluation of research and validation of local and international perennial solutions be implemented.
4 - A network of reference maternity hospitals associated with high standard technical platforms and expert human resources be encouraged and developed.

We, the undersigned academies of science throughout the world, members of the IAP, are convinced that, in the next two decades, this action, with the support of international authorities, the backing of national ministries concerned and the dedicated efforts of the worldwide scientific and medical community, can lead to significant and essential progress for humanity.

Health of Mother and Child in developing countries: Signatories

Latin American Academy of Sciences
Third World Academy of Sciences
Albanian Academy of Sciences
National Academy of Exact, Physical and Natural Sciences, Argentina
Australian Academy of Science
Austrian Academy of Sciences
Bangladesh Academy of Sciences
The Royal Academies for Science and the Arts of Belgium
Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Brazilian Academy of Sciences
Cameroon Academy of Sciences
The Royal Society of Canada
Academia Chilena de Ciencias
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Academia Sinica, China, Taiwan
Colombian Academy of Exact, Physical and Natural Sciences
Croatian Academy of Arts and Sciences
Cuban Academy of Sciences
Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
Academy of Scientific Research and Technology, Egypt
Estonian Academy of Sciences
The Delegation of the Finnish Academies of Science and Letters
Académie des Sciences, France
Georgian Academy of Sciences
Union of German Academies of Sciences and Humanities
Ghana Academy of Arts and Sciences
Academy of Athens, Greece
Academia de Ciencias Medicas, Fisicas y Naturales de Guatemala
Hungarian Academy of Sciences
Indian National Science Academy
Indonesian Academy of Sciences
Royal Irish Academy (Acadamh Ríoga na héireann)
Kenya National Academy of Sciences
Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, Italy
Science Council of Japan
Royal Scientific Society of Jordan
African Academy of Sciences
Latvian Academy of Sciences
Lithuanian Academy of Sciences
Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts
Akademi Sains Malaysia
Academía Mexicana de Ciencias
Academy of Sciences of Moldova
Mongolian Academy of Sciences
The Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences
Academy Council of the Royal Society of New Zealand
Nigerian Academy of Sciences
Norwegian Academy of Sciences and Letters
Pakistan Academy of Sciences
Palestine Academy for Science and Technology
Academia Nacional de Ciencias del Peru
National Academy of Science and Technology, Philippines
Académie des Sciences et Techniques du Sénégal
Singapore National Academy of Sciences
Slovak Academy of Sciences
Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts
Academy of Science of South Africa
Royal Academy of Exact, Physical and Natural Sciences of Spain
National Academy of Sciences, Sri Lanka
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
Council of the Swiss Scientific Academies
Academy of Sciences, Republic of Tajikistan
The Caribbean Academy of Sciences
Turkish Academy of Sciences
The Royal Society, United Kingdom
US National Academy of Sciences
Academia de Ciencias Físicas, Matemáticas y Naturales de Venezuela


Scientific Capacity Building

An IAP Statement on Scientific Capacity Building

Mexico City, 4 December 2003

All countries now recognize the intimate relationship between science, technology and sustained economic development. Yet disparities in scientific and technological capacities between nations continue to grow - a trend accompanied by increasing disparities in economic and social well-being. Per-capita income in "high-income" countries is 60 times greater than per-capita income in "low-income" countries; meanwhile, per-capita research expenditures in developed countries is 220 times greater than per-capita research expenditures in the poorest developing countries.

Over the past two decades, the North-South divide in scientific and technological capacities has been accompanied by another unwelcome divide: growing disparities within the South between scientifically proficient countries (for example, Brazil, China, India, Malaysia, and South Korea) and scientifically laggard countries (most notably, the nations of sub-Saharan Africa).

The InterAcademy Panel on International Issues (IAP) has sought to address these trends by helping to nurture the creation of merit-based science academies in nations where they do not exist and to strengthen the capacities of science academies in countries where they do exist but function far below their potential. It is a compelling challenge (for example, of the world's 139 developing countries, only 40 have merit-based science academies). Yet, the IAP is convinced that strong merit-based science academies provide critical indigenous mechanisms for promoting scientific excellence, bringing the fruits of scientific research closer to national economic development strategies, and devising science-based solutions to issues related to resource conservation and use.

To date, the IAP has held regional workshops on scientific capacity building for academies in Africa, South America and the Caribbean region, as well as for academies in countries with predominantly Muslim populations. The IAP recognizes that merit-based science academies represent only one key player in efforts to build enduring scientific and technological capacities on national, regional and international scales.

Therefore, in a broader perspective, the IAP recommends the following:

1 - Creation of national science and technology strategies that specify research and development priorities and funding commitments. Such strategies should be developed in full consultation with the nation's scientific and technological communities
2 - Continued development of centres of scientific excellence, especially in the South. International funding agencies should work closely with national and regional scientific institutions throughout the developing world to create centres of excellence in a broad range of disciplines. These centres should promote research excellence, comprehensive training, and the exchange of both personnel and information.
3 - Expansion of programmes for North-South and South-South scientific cooperation not only through the activities of centres of excellence but through bilateral and global initiatives sponsored by national governments and international organizations.
4 - Targeted programmes designed to meet the special needs of women and minorities interested in pursuing careers in science. These potentially critical groups are often woefully under-represented in the scientific community. This vast untapped source of talent must not be neglected when seeking to build and strengthen scientific and technological capacities worldwide.

We, the undersigned science academies throughout the world, members of the IAP, are convinced that building scientific and technological capacity is necessary for the promotion of sustainable development; that this implies the local creation of centres of scientific excellence (possibly academies); and that this entails both a mobilization of all intellectual resources and renewed international efforts for scientific cooperation.

Scientific Capacity Building: Signatories

Latin American Academy of Sciences
Third World Academy of Sciences
Albanian Academy of Sciences
National Academy of Exact, Physical and Natural Sciences, Argentina
Australian Academy of Science
Austrian Academy of Sciences
Bangladesh Academy of Sciences
The Royal Academies for Science and the Arts of Belgium
Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Brazilian Academy of Sciences
Cameroon Academy of Sciences
The Royal Society of Canada
Academia Chilena de Ciencias
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Academia Sinica, China, Taiwan
Colombian Academy of Exact, Physical and Natural Sciences
Croatian Academy of Arts and Sciences
Cuban Academy of Sciences
Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
Academy of Scientific Research and Technology, Egypt
Estonian Academy of Sciences
The Delegation of the Finnish Academies of Science and Letters
Académie des Sciences, France
Georgian Academy of Sciences
Union of German Academies of Sciences and Humanities
Ghana Academy of Arts and Sciences
Academy of Athens, Greece
Academia de Ciencias Medicas, Fisicas y Naturales de Guatemala
Hungarian Academy of Sciences
Indian National Science Academy
Indonesian Academy of Sciences
Royal Irish Academy (Acadamh Ríoga na héireann)
Kenya National Academy of Sciences
Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, Italy
Science Council of Japan
Royal Scientific Society of Jordan
African Academy of Sciences
Latvian Academy of Sciences
Lithuanian Academy of Sciences
Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts
Akademi Sains Malaysia
Academía Mexicana de Ciencias
Academy of Sciences of Moldova
Mongolian Academy of Sciences
The Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences
Academy Council of the Royal Society of New Zealand
Nigerian Academy of Sciences
Norwegian Academy of Sciences and Letters
Pakistan Academy of Sciences
Palestine Academy for Science and Technology
Academia Nacional de Ciencias del Peru
National Academy of Science and Technology, Philippines
Académie des Sciences et Techniques du Sénégal
Singapore National Academy of Sciences
Slovak Academy of Sciences
Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts
Academy of Science of South Africa
Royal Academy of Exact, Physical and Natural Sciences of Spain
National Academy of Sciences, Sri Lanka
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
Council of the Swiss Scientific Academies
Academy of Sciences, Republic of Tajikistan
The Caribbean Academy of Sciences
Turkish Academy of Sciences
The Uganda National Academy of Sciences
The Royal Society, United Kingdom
US National Academy of Sciences
Academia de Ciencias Físicas, Matemáticas y Naturales de Venezuela


Science Education of Children

An IAP Statement on Science Education of Children

Mexico City, 4 December 2003

Must all children learn science at school?

The answer is "Yes." Science opens young people's minds to the wonders of the natural world; introduces them to the elegance and honesty of scientific endeavours; and equips them with cognitive and problem-solving tools that will serve them well in the future. Science brings children closer to the natural objects and phenomena that surround them; endows them with a rich understanding of our complex world; helps them practice an intelligent approach to dealing with the environment; and teaches them about the techniques and tools that societies have used to improve the human condition. As children become familiar with the universality of the laws of science, they also learn to recognize science's ability "to create and cement together a unity for humanity."

As citizens, science helps children develop the mental and moral predispositions to imagination, humility, rigour, curiosity, freedom and tolerance - all essential ingredients for peace and democracy.

Therefore, the InterAcademy Panel on International Issues (IAP) recommends to all national leaders that:

1 - Teaching of the sciences to both girls and boys begin in their primary and nursery schools. There is evidence that children, from the youngest age, are capable of building upon their natural and insatiable curiosity to develop logical and rational thought
2 - This teaching should be closely tied to the realities with which the children are confronted locally, in their natural environment and their culture, in order to facilitate continuing exchange with their family and friends.
3 - This teaching should be based, to a large extent, upon models of inquiry-based pedagogy, assigning a major role to questioning by the students, leading them to develop hypotheses relating to the initial questions and, when possible, encouraging experimentation that, while simple in terms of the apparatus used, can be performed by children themselves.
4 - In this manner one should avoid, as far as possible, a teaching of the sciences which is handed down vertically by a teacher enunciating facts to be learnt by heart, in favour of one which is transformed for children into an acquisition of knowledge which is horizontal, that is, which connects them with nature - inert or living - directly, at the same time involving their senses and their intelligence.
5 - Links should be established between teachers, via the internet, first within their own country, then internationally, taking advantage of the universal nature of the laws of science to establish a direct contact between classes in different countries on subjects of global interest (e.g. climate, ecology, geography).
6 - Priority should be given to the networking of schools, and that support should be given - in the same way as IAP and the International Council for Science (ICSU) work on this jointly via the website: http://www.icsu.org/events/icsu-iap - to efforts to develop shareable experiments and teaching tools (such as documents and experiment portfolios) to be placed in an electronic commons for all to modify and use.

We, the undersigned science academies throughout the world, members of the IAP, are convinced that, with the support of international authorities, the backing of the national ministries concerned, and the dedicated efforts of the many scientists whom they bring together, a worldwide effort in this area is within reach. This effort is potentially rich in intellectual and societal benefits.

Science Education of Children: Signatories

Latin American Academy of Sciences
Third World Academy of Sciences
Albanian Academy of Sciences
National Academy of Exact, Physical and Natural Sciences, Argentina
Australian Academy of Science
Austrian Academy of Sciences
Bangladesh Academy of Sciences
The Royal Academies for Science and the Arts of Belgium
Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Brazilian Academy of Sciences
Cameroon Academy of Sciences
The Royal Society of Canada
Academia Chilena de Ciencias
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Academia Sinica, China, Taiwan
Colombian Academy of Exact, Physical and Natural Sciences
Croatian Academy of Arts and Sciences
Cuban Academy of Sciences
Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
Academy of Scientific Research and Technology, Egypt
Estonian Academy of Sciences
The Delegation of the Finnish Academies of Science and Letters
Académie des Sciences, France
Georgian Academy of Sciences
Union of German Academies of Sciences and Humanities
Ghana Academy of Arts and Sciences
Academy of Athens, Greece
Academia de Ciencias Medicas, Fisicas y Naturales de Guatemala
Hungarian Academy of Sciences
Indian National Science Academy
Indonesian Academy of Sciences
Royal Irish Academy (Acadamh Ríoga na héireann)
Kenya National Academy of Sciences
Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, Italy
Science Council of Japan
Royal Scientific Society of Jordan
African Academy of Sciences
Latvian Academy of Sciences
Lithuanian Academy of Sciences
Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts
Akademi Sains Malaysia
Academía Mexicana de Ciencias
Academy of Sciences of Moldova
Mongolian Academy of Sciences
The Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences
Academy Council of the Royal Society of New Zealand
Nigerian Academy of Sciences
Norwegian Academy of Sciences and Letters
Pakistan Academy of Sciences
Palestine Academy for Science and Technology
Academia Nacional de Ciencias del Peru
National Academy of Science and Technology, Philippines
Russian Academy of Sciences
Académie des Sciences et Techniques du Sénégal
Singapore National Academy of Sciences
Slovak Academy of Sciences
Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts
Academy of Science of South Africa
Royal Academy of Exact, Physical and Natural Sciences of Spain
National Academy of Sciences, Sri Lanka
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
Council of the Swiss Scientific Academies
Academy of Sciences, Republic of Tajikistan
The Caribbean Academy of Sciences
Turkish Academy of Sciences
The Uganda National Academy of Sciences
The Royal Society, United Kingdom
US National Academy of Sciences
Academia de Ciencias Físicas, Matemáticas y Naturales de Venezuela


Science and the Media

An IAP Statement on Science and the Media

Mexico City, 4 December 2003

Should the scientific community interact more closely with the media in efforts to explain the work of scientists to a larger public?

Of course, it should. But the more difficult questions involve the responsibilities that the scientific community should shoulder in such efforts and the concrete measures that should be taken to enhance the capabilities of both scientists and scientific institutions in their interaction with the media.

On the one hand, the public often turns to science for answers to difficult issues that science itself may not be able to provide. On the other hand, today's cutting-edge scientific research does not readily lend itself to explanations that can be easily conveyed through the media, especially broadcast media. Today's cutting edge scientific research, moreover, often raises ethical issues that must be discussed among a broad cross-section of society before a consensus can emerge. In a sense, advances in science have raised immensely complicated issues that science alone cannot answer.

Fierce public resistance to the cultivation and distribution of genetically engineered food crops, even in developing countries suffering from malnutrition and hunger, indicate that the public - both in the North and South - is increasingly unwilling to assume that the products of scientific research are safe just because scientists say so. Likewise, public confusion - and often doubt - concerning the ethical propriety of cloning, whether for reproductive or therapeutic purposes, suggests that the scientific community has been unable to clearly explain such difficult issues to the public or, conversely, that the public is not listening when scientists do.

The scientific community and media each have distinctive roles to play within this increasingly complicated relationship between science and society. That's why a fruitful relationship between the two - one that proves of value to the societies in which they both function - depends on each understanding and respecting the other's roles.

Therefore, the InterAcademy Panel on International Issues (IAP) supports efforts to strengthen and expand:

1 - Training programmes for building the capacity of science academies to interact with the media, paying particular attention to the needs and circumstances faced by academies in the developing world, and to the increasing conflicts over scientific issues in industrialized countries
2 - Programmes for media representatives to visit scientific laboratories in order to learn more about the work of scientists, paying particular attention to the needs and circumstances faced by print and broadcast media representatives in the developing world.

3 - Workshops organized by academies with public information offices (PIO) designed for academies that do not have such offices to provide practical information on how PIOs function.
4 - Workshops designed to improve the ability of scientists to engage the public in their work by developing the skills necessary to give public lectures, improve print and electronic material for public consumption, and serve as consultants on science-related television programmes, films and videos.

 

We, the undersigned science academies throughout the world, members of the IAP, support any effort done jointly by the scientific and the journalistic communities aiming at enhancing the fluidity of the information about discoveries in science, and at favouring public debates of high objectivity on the ethical issues which they may raise.

Science and the Media: Signatories

Latin American Academy of Sciences
Third World Academy of Sciences
Albanian Academy of Sciences
National Academy of Exact, Physical and Natural Sciences, Argentina
Australian Academy of Science
Austrian Academy of Sciences
Bangladesh Academy of Sciences
The Royal Academies for Science and the Arts of Belgium
Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Brazilian Academy of Sciences
Cameroon Academy of Sciences
The Royal Society of Canada
Academia Chilena de Ciencias
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Academia Sinica, China, Taiwan
Colombian Academy of Exact, Physical and Natural Sciences
Croatian Academy of Arts and Sciences
Cuban Academy of Sciences
Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
Academy of Scientific Research and Technology, Egypt
Estonian Academy of Sciences
The Delegation of the Finnish Academies of Science and Letters
Académie des Sciences, France
Georgian Academy of Sciences
Union of German Academies of Sciences and Humanities
Ghana Academy of Arts and Sciences
Academy of Athens, Greece
Academia de Ciencias Medicas, Fisicas y Naturales de Guatemala
Hungarian Academy of Sciences
Indian National Science Academy
Indonesian Academy of Sciences
Royal Irish Academy (Acadamh Ríoga na héireann)
Kenya National Academy of Sciences
Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, Italy
Science Council of Japan
Royal Scientific Society of Jordan
African Academy of Sciences
Latvian Academy of Sciences
Lithuanian Academy of Sciences
Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts
Akademi Sains Malaysia
Academía Mexicana de Ciencias
Academy of Sciences of Moldova
Mongolian Academy of Sciences
The Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences
Academy Council of the Royal Society of New Zealand
Nigerian Academy of Sciences
Norwegian Academy of Sciences and Letters
Pakistan Academy of Sciences
Palestine Academy for Science and Technology
Academia Nacional de Ciencias del Peru
National Academy of Science and Technology, Philippines
Russian Academy of Sciences
Académie des Sciences et Techniques du Sénégal
Singapore National Academy of Sciences
Slovak Academy of Sciences
Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts
Academy of Science of South Africa
Royal Academy of Exact, Physical and Natural Sciences of Spain
National Academy of Sciences, Sri Lanka
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
Council of the Swiss Scientific Academies
Academy of Sciences, Republic of Tajikistan
The Caribbean Academy of Sciences
Turkish Academy of Sciences
The Uganda National Academy of Sciences
The Royal Society, United Kingdom
US National Academy of Sciences
Academia de Ciencias Físicas, Matemáticas y Naturales de Venezuela


Access to Scientific Information

An IAP Statement on Access to Scientific Information

Mexico City, 4 December 2003

The truth that knowledge is power is particularly emphasized in today's world. Science is the most successful means of knowledge creation. Because it deals exclusively with arguments based on evidence that can be independently confirmed by others, science is by its very nature an endeavour that requires openness, and it thrives on a complete and honest public reporting of results. Access to the vast and varied literature that has been generated by scientific research, and to the numerical data that are being collected in public research endeavours, is essential to advances in human health, improvements in agriculture, and the preservation of the natural environment that sustains our life. It is also critical for the creation of new technologies that benefit humankind. In addition, scientific knowledge facilitates our understanding of our place in the universe.
Yet most scientists and research laboratories in developing countries cannot afford the journal subscriptions, or have to pay for access to the databases that exist in more economically advanced nations. All nations must have access to the accumulation of scientific knowledge in order to work toward a better future for all people.

In an era in which global dissemination of the published results of scientific research is increasingly accomplished electronically, it is possible to give access to this body of knowledge to scientists worldwide, allowing them to participate in the scientific process and advance the scientific enterprise. Access to current, high quality, scientific databases and literature allows scientists in developing countries to base their own work on up-to-date advancements in their field and to strengthen the scientific infrastructure of their own countries. Unfortunately, however, scientists and research institutions in the developing world can rarely afford the high cost of these knowledge resources.
The InterAcademy Panel on International Issues (IAP), recognizing that many efforts in this regard are under way worldwide and that the business models of scientific publishers need to be taken into consideration, recommends that:

1 - Electronic access to journal content be made available worldwide without cost as soon as possible, within one year or less of publication for scientists in industrialized nations, and immediately upon publication for scientists in developing countries.
2 - Journal content and, to the extent possible, data upon which research is based, be prepared and presented in a standard format for electronic distribution to facilitate ease of use.
3 - Journal content be archived collectively, either by private or government organizations.
4 - Governments and publishers work together to raise awareness, in the scientific community, of the availability of free electronic access to scientific journals.
5 - Scientific databases obtained by intergovernmental organizations (for example in meteorology and epidemiology) be made available without cost or restrictions on reuse.

For both the publishers of scientific journals and the intergovernmental organizations, providing free content to developing countries will have a minimal financial impact. Sales to these countries are small compared to the revenue generated from sales to more developed countries. Moreover, the cost of implementing the technology for custom web access for selected countries is low (for details, see: http://www.nap.edu/info/free_ip.html).

We, the undersigned science academies throughout the world, members of the IAP, are convinced that, with the support of international authorities, the backing of the ministries concerned, and the cooperation of scientific publishers, worldwide dissemination of scientific knowledge can be achieved; and that the benefits to the global scientific community, and to developing countries in particular, will be immense.

Access to Scientific Information: Signatories

Latin American Academy of Sciences
Third World Academy of Sciences
Albanian Academy of Sciences
National Academy of Exact, Physical and Natural Sciences, Argentina
Australian Academy of Science
Austrian Academy of Sciences
Bangladesh Academy of Sciences
The Royal Academies for Science and the Arts of Belgium
Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Brazilian Academy of Sciences
Cameroon Academy of Sciences
The Royal Society of Canada
Academia Chilena de Ciencias
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Academia Sinica, China, Taiwan
Colombian Academy of Exact, Physical and Natural Sciences
Croatian Academy of Arts and Sciences
Cuban Academy of Sciences
Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
Academy of Scientific Research and Technology, Egypt
Estonian Academy of Sciences
The Delegation of the Finnish Academies of Science and Letters
Académie des Sciences, France
Georgian Academy of Sciences
Union of German Academies of Sciences and Humanities
Ghana Academy of Arts and Sciences
Academy of Athens, Greece
Academia de Ciencias Medicas, Fisicas y Naturales de Guatemala
Hungarian Academy of Sciences
Indian National Science Academy
Indonesian Academy of Sciences
Royal Irish Academy (Acadamh Ríoga na héireann)
Kenya National Academy of Sciences
Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, Italy
Science Council of Japan
Royal Scientific Society of Jordan
African Academy of Sciences
Latvian Academy of Sciences
Lithuanian Academy of Sciences
Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts
Akademi Sains Malaysia
Academía Mexicana de Ciencias
Academy of Sciences of Moldova
Mongolian Academy of Sciences
The Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences
Academy Council of the Royal Society of New Zealand
Nigerian Academy of Sciences
Norwegian Academy of Sciences and Letters
Pakistan Academy of Sciences
Palestine Academy for Science and Technology
Academia Nacional de Ciencias del Peru
National Academy of Science and Technology, Philippines
Russian Academy of Sciences
Académie des Sciences et Techniques du Sénégal
Slovak Academy of Sciences
Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts
Academy of Science of South Africa
Royal Academy of Exact, Physical and Natural Sciences of Spain
National Academy of Sciences, Sri Lanka
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
Council of the Swiss Scientific Academies
Academy of Sciences, Republic of Tajikistan
The Caribbean Academy of Sciences
Turkish Academy of Sciences
The Royal Society, United Kingdom
US National Academy of Sciences
Academia de Ciencias Físicas, Matemáticas y Naturales de Venezuela

Biosecurity

Diciembre 2005

Acuerdo Argentina-Australia

Agosto 2004

Human Cloning

Septiembre 2003

México 2003

Diciembre 2003

Acuerdo Argentina-Australia

Agosto 2002

Rio 2002

Septiembre 2002

Science and Technology for Peace and Development

Octubre 2002

Tokio 2000

Mayo 2000